When examining population levels that have been influenced by an Allee effect, many different population models can be applied [1]. Different mathematical model types can be applied in order to gain information concerning various pieces of a species' invasion and if the species' population will succeed or fail. Two types of frequently used systems are deterministic and stochastic models. Deterministic modelling in a deterministic system involves no randomness when developing the future states of the system [2]. Stochastic modelling involves a stochastic process, also known as a random process, in which a collection of random variables are used in order to represent the evolution of a system of random values over a span of time [3].


  1. Taylor, Caz M. & Hastings, Alan. 2005. Allee effects in biological invasions. Ecology Letters, 8: 895-908.
  2. Definition at the Internet Encyclopedia of Science. Retrieved from:
  3. Zitkovic, Gordan. 2010. Introduction to Stochastic Processes. The University of Texas at Austin. Department of Mathematics: Lecture Notes.

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